Polygonal Impact Craters on Miranda, Charon, and Dione

Post contributed by Dr. Chloe B. Beddingfield, The SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center

Some impact craters are classified as polygonal impact craters (PICs), which have at least one straight rim segment, as shown in Image 1. The morphologies of PICs are shaped by pre-existing, sub-vertical structures in the target material, such as normal and strike-slip faults, joint sets, and lithologic boundaries. Because the straight rim segments of PICs only form where pre-existing structures are present, PIC morphologies can be used to analyze fractures that are buried by regolith or too small to be seen in available spacecraft images. On the icy Uranian moon Miranda, PICs are widespread across its southern hemisphere, which was imaged by the Imaging Science System (ISS) onboard the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Some of these PICs reveal previously undetected fractures that suggest Miranda has experienced multiple periods of tectonic activity.

Image 1: Examples of two PICs identified on the Uranian moon Miranda. Black arrows indicate the straight rims of these PICs. The Voyager 2 ISS image mosaic shown here includes the following images, from top to bottom: c2684620 (light blue box), c2684629, c2684617 (dark blue box).

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Ridged Plains on Europa Reveal a Compressive Past

Post Contributed by Dr. Erin Leonard, Postdoctoral Fellow at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

Jupiter’s icy moon Europa has a geologically young surface (60-100 million years old), as evidenced by the sparsity of large impact craters. Studying the surface features on Europa allows insight into how resurfacing may have given it a youthful appearance. The majority of Europa’s young surface is made up of Ridged Plains terrain. This terrain has not been extensively studied before because it appears as a smooth and relatively bland in the global-scale images. However, in the few high-resolution images returned by the Galileo mission in the early 2000s, the Ridged Plains are revealed to consist of numerous ridges and troughs that have a range of morphologies—from crisscrossing each other in various directions to orderly sets of parallel structures (Image 1). But how did these ridges and troughs form?

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Image 1: A variety of examples of ridged plains on Europa. Note the linear to curvilinear systematic ridge traces in all examples: (A) observation E4ESDRKMAT02 at 26 m/pixel, (B) observation 19ESRHADAM01 at 66 m/pixel, (C) observation 12ESWEDGE_02 at 29 m/pixel, and (D) observation 12ESMOTTLE02 at 16 m/pixel.

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Enigmatic Normal Faults on Ceres

Post by Kynan Hughson, Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Since March of 2015 NASA’s Dawn spacecraft has been actively exploring the main asteroid belt’s largest member and only dwarf planet in the inner solar system: Ceres. Situated around two fifths of the way between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, Ceres is gargantuan compared to its neighbors. With a mean diameter of ~946 km (approximately the width of the state of Texas) and a bulk density of ~2.16 g/cm3 it comprises around one third of the mass of the entire main belt. Dawn’s continuing examination of this unique object since March 2015 has revealed a geologically diverse world covered with geomorphological features common to both rocky inner solar system planets and icy outer solar system satellites (e.g. Bland et al., 2016; Schmidt et al., 2017; Fu et al., 2017). These observations have exacerbated Ceres’ refusal to be neatly categorized as either a rocky or icy planet.

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Image 1: A rotating aerial view of Nar Sulcus (centered at approximately 79.9 °W, 41.9 °S). Note the two nearly perpendicular sets of fractures. In particular, note the imbricated blocks within the longer fracture set. The longer fracture set is approximately 45 km long, and the deepest valleys are ~400 m deep. This scene was created using a stereophotogrammetrically (SPG) derived elevation model (vertical resolution ~15 m) and high resolution (~35 m/pixel) Dawn framing camera mosaics (Roatsch et al., 2016a; Roatsch et al., 2016b), which are available on the Small Bodies Node of NASA’s Planetary Data System.

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Pit chains on Enceladus

Post contributed by Dr. Emily S. Martin, Research Fellow, Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air & Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.

Pit chains are linear assemblages of circular to elliptical pits and have been observed across the solar system. Pit chains have been found on Venus, Earth, Mars, Phobos, Eros, Gaspra, Ida, and Vesta. Across the solar system, pit chains may form through a variety of mechanisms including the collapse of lava tubes, karst, venting, extensional fracturing, or dilational faulting. Saturn’s tiny icy moon Enceladus is the first body of the outer solar system on which pit chains have been identified. Enceladus is only 500 km in diameter and is best known for its warm south pole and its watery plume emanating from prominent ridges known as tiger stripes. The source of the plume is likely a global liquid water ocean beneath an icy shell.

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Image 1: The morphology of pit chains across the solar system. a. Eros from NEAR. Image no. 135344864. b. Phobos. Image PIA10367. c. Albalonga Catena, Vesta. d. Venus. Right-look Magellan data near 13°S, 112°E. e. Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii centered at 19.3909°N 155.3076°W. Image taken 12/06/2014, acquired from Google Earth on 04/20/2016. f. Ida, modified from image PIA00332. g. Gaspra, modified from Galileo image PIA00332. h. Pit chains in north-eastern Iceland centered near 65.9902°N and 16.5301°W. Image taken on 7/27/2012, acquired from Google Earth 04/20/2016. i. Pit chains on Mars from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera, centered near 6.5398°S and 119.9703°W on the flank of Arsia Mons. Image PIA02874.

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It is Mercury’s fault(s)…

Post contributed by Valentina Galluzzi, INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali (IAPS), Rome, Italy

Any celestial body that possesses a rigid crust, be it made of rock (e.g. terrestrial planets, asteroids) or ice (e.g. icy satellites), is subject to both endogenic and exogenic forces that cause the deformation of crustal materials. As a result of the mass movement, the brittle layers often break and slide along “planes” commonly known as faults. In particular, tensional, compressional and shear forces form normal, reverse and strike-slip faults, respectively. On Earth, plate tectonics is the main source of these stresses, being a balanced process that causes the lithospheric plates to diverge, converge and slide with respect to each other. On Mercury, there are no plates and therefore the tectonics work differently. Instead its surface is dominated by widespread lobate scarps, which are the surface expression of contractional thrust faults (i.e. reverse faults whose dip angle is less than 45°) and this small planet is in a state of global contraction.

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Image 1. Endeavour Rupes area on Mercury, image is centred at 37.5°N, 31.7°W. Top: MESSENGER MDIS High-Incidence angle basemap illuminated from the West (HIW) at 166 m/pixel. Bottom: MESSENGER global DEM v2 with a 665m grid [USGS Astrogeology Science Center] on HIW basemap, the purple to brown colour ramp represents low to high elevations, respectively. Endeavour Rupes scarp is high ~500 m. For scale, Holbein crater diameter is approximately 110 km.

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