Martian Spiders Recreated in the Laboratory

Post contributed by Dr. Lauren Mc Keown, School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, UK.

Spiders are unusual branched landforms found among the high southern latitudes of Mars (Image 1). They have no Earth analogues and are often accompanied by fans and spots that appear in spring. They are proposed to form when sunlight penetrates the Martian south polar seasonal CO2 ice layer, causing ice at its base to change from ice to gas, and eventually crack. Escaping gas then scours the terrain beneath, carving spider-like patterns and depositing material on top of the ice via a plume (Kieffer et al., 2003). However, although this suggested process is well-accepted, it has never been directly observed on Mars. In order to investigate whether spider patterns could form by CO2 sublimation under Martian atmospheric pressure, experiments were performed (Image 2) at the Open University Mars Simulation Chamber, which simulates Martian atmospheric conditions.

Image 1: Examples of spiders on Mars (HiRISE image ESP_014282_0930). Left shows the ‘classic’ spider morphology which consists of a central depression and radial tortuous dendritic troughs emanating from its centre. Right is a context image. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.

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